Discover the Top 8 Causes of Lower Back PainBack pain is a common issue that affects millions worldwide, impacting their quality of life. Various factors, including poor posture and underlying health conditions, contribute to this widespread ailment. At New York Spine Care, Dr. Paul-Marie Brisson is dedicated to diagnosing and treating spine-related conditions, helping patients regain control over their lives.

With his expertise in spinal health, Dr. Brisson aims to address even the most complex cases of back pain. In this blog, we will explore the top 8 causes of back pain, including risk factors, and discuss how Dr. Brisson provides targeted and effective treatment. Let's dive in.

Sprains & Strains

Sprains and strains often result in lower back pain. These injuries commonly occur from activities like lifting heavy weights, sports, or improper twisting. They cause soft tissue damage, including bleeding, inflammation, swelling, bruising, and muscle spasms, leading to discomfort.

The pain can greatly impact daily activities, ranging from sharp, burning sensations to dull or stabbing pain. These symptoms typically last a few weeks, but if healing is disrupted or the same muscle is injured again, it can become chronic.

Sprains and strains primarily affect the extensors (e.g., gluteal muscles), flexors (abdominal muscles), and side muscles of the spine. Damage to these muscles, tendons, or ligaments results in inflammation, swelling, and pain signals, causing stiffness that affects mobility. Muscle spasms may require adjustments in posture and positioning to alleviate discomfort, sometimes making it challenging to maintain an upright stance.

Traumatic Injury

Traumatic injuries are sudden physical injuries that require immediate medical attention. They often result from accidents, falls, or impacts that directly affect the spine. These incidents can cause fractures, dislocations, and spinal cord injuries, leading to severe lower back pain.

When the spine experiences a traumatic blow, it can result in the displacement or breaking of vertebrae, causing immediate and intense pain. Damage to the spinal cord can lead to pain, numbness, weakness, or paralysis. Types of traumatic spine injuries include spinal fractures, spinal cord injuries, and dislocations.


A fracture is a medical condition where there is damage in the continuity of the bone. Fractures in the spine, also known as vertebral fractures, can cause severe lower back pain. They typically occur as a result of high-force impact or stress, or on weaker bones due to conditions like osteoporosis.

When the vertebral body in the spine collapses, it can lead to a spinal fracture, causing sharp, sudden back pain, often leading to mobility issues. The pain could potentially get worse when standing or walking and may ease a bit when resting.

Different types of fractures can affect the spine and result in lower back pain:

  • Compression Fractures: Commonly seen in people with osteoporosis, a compression fracture occurs when the bone collapses, leading to severe pain, loss of height, and a stooped posture.
  • Burst Fractures: Slightly more severe than compression fractures, these occur when an extreme load is placed on the spine, causing the vertebra to shatter and potentially leading to spinal cord injury.
  • Flexion-distraction Fractures: Also known as seat-belt injuries, these fractures occur when the upper body is thrown forward while the lower body is in a fixed position, causing a fracture in the vertebra.

Each type of fracture can seriously impact the individual's quality of life, restricting mobility, and causing intense pain. Therefore, it's crucial to seek immediate medical attention when experiencing symptoms suggestive of a spinal fracture.

Herniated Disc

A herniated disc, also known as a slipped or ruptured disc, occurs when the inner soft portion of a spinal disc protrudes through the tough outer ring. It commonly affects the lower back and neck, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the leg, hip, shoulder, and arm. Symptoms vary depending on the location. Herniated discs are often diagnosed in people aged 35-55 due to age-related disc degeneration, but can also result from traumatic events.

The most common signs of a herniated disc include:

  1. Pain on one side of the body: One of the most common symptoms of a herniated disc is sharp, intense pain on one side of the body.
  2. Numbness or tingling: People with a herniated disc often experience numbness or tingling in the area of the body served by the affected nerves.
  3. Weakness: Muscles served by the affected nerves tend to weaken, which may cause you to stumble or impair your ability to lift or hold items.

Understanding the signs and symptoms of a herniated disc is crucial for prompt diagnosis and treatment. This will help alleviate the pain and discomfort associated with this condition and enhance the quality of life.


Sciatica is pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which starts in the lower back, goes through the hips and buttocks, and extends down each leg. It typically affects one side of the body. Sciatica often occurs when a herniated disc, bone spur, or spinal stenosis compresses part of the nerve, leading to inflammation, pain, and sometimes numbness in the affected leg. In some cases, it can also cause lower back pain and limited leg mobility.

Symptoms of sciatica can include:

  • Lower back pain: Pain in the lower back that may worsen during sudden movements, coughing, or sneezing.
  • Hip pain: Discomfort and pain in the hips due to the location of the sciatic nerve.
  • Burning or tingling sensation down the leg: This can occur on one side of the body and is due to the irritation of the nerve.
  • Weakness, numbness, or difficulty moving the leg or foot: This is a more severe symptom and can result from more serious nerve compression.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

Lumbar spinal stenosis is a condition characterized by the narrowing of the spinal canal in the lumbar spine, the lower part of the back. This narrowing can cause severe back pain as it puts pressure on the spinal cord and nerves that extend to the muscles. It is most commonly seen in the lumbar spine area, where the spinal cord runs through the spinal canal formed by the vertebrae. The narrowing can lead to lower back pain and other symptoms like numbness or weakness in the legs. Recognizing the signs of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis and seeking timely medical intervention is crucial in managing severe back pain and improving quality of life.


Osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease, is a form of arthritis that occurs when the cartilage in one or more joints breaks down and is eventually lost. This condition is commonly referred to as 'wear and tear' arthritis because it develops gradually over time due to the strain on the joints.

Chronic low back pain can be significantly influenced by osteoarthritis. The spine is composed of multiple small joints, including the spinal joints, which can be affected by osteoarthritis just like any other joints in the body. In the lumbar region, or lower back, the facet joints enable movement and flexibility in the spine. However, these facet joints can deteriorate and lose the cushioning cartilage over time, leading to osteoarthritis in the lower back. This often results in pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.

Furthermore, as the cartilage wears down, the bones can rub against each other, causing increased friction and inflammation, which intensifies the pain. In response to this discomfort, the body may produce new bone in the facet joints to support the vertebrae. These bone overgrowths, also known as bone spurs, can compress nearby nerves over time, resulting in pain and potentially causing other symptoms like numbness or weakness in the legs.

Understanding osteoarthritis and its potential implications for chronic low back pain is crucial in managing this condition. It's important to note that while age is often associated with osteoarthritis, other factors such as genetics, weight, and previous injuries can also contribute to its development. Therefore, prevention and management of osteoarthritis typically involve a comprehensive approach, including maintaining a healthy weight, regular exercise, and, in some cases, medications or physical therapy.


Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve. The curve is usually 'S'- or 'C'-shaped over three dimensions. While it can appear at any age, the condition is most commonly diagnosed during adolescence, coinciding with growth spurts. Scoliosis can be classified as idiopathic (of unknown cause), congenital (present at birth), or neuromuscular (associated with muscle and nerve conditions).

The precise cause of scoliosis remains largely unknown, although it's believed to involve a mix of genetic and environmental factors. Congenital scoliosis occurs due to a bone abnormality at birth, while neuromuscular scoliosis results from nerve or muscle conditions like cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy.

Scoliosis can contribute to back pain, particularly in adults. The abnormal spinal curvature can lead to an uneven distribution of pressure on the spine, causing discomfort and pain. As the spine curves, it can pull and strain the muscles in the back, leading to muscle fatigue and soreness. In severe cases, scoliosis can cause the spine to twist, potentially leading to respiratory and heart problems.

Understanding scoliosis and its potential to cause back pain is crucial for early detection and treatment. Non-surgical treatments such as bracing and physical therapy are often effective for managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the curve. In severe cases or chronic back pain, surgery may be recommended. Early diagnosis and appropriate management can substantially improve the quality of life for individuals with scoliosis.

How Is Lower Back Pain Diagnosed?

Lower back pain can be effectively diagnosed through a combination of detailed patient history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Initially, your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms, conducting a thorough review of your medical history and any factors that might contribute to your discomfort. This could include details about the onset, nature, and duration of your pain, as well as any associated symptoms.

Following this, Dr. Brisson will perform a physical exam to assess your pain and look for any signs of nerve damage or underlying conditions. This examination will typically involve a range of motion tests and might include checks for tenderness, muscle strength, and reflex changes.

For a more detailed understanding of your condition, Dr. Brisson may order imaging studies. These studies can provide clear images of your vertebrae, discs, muscles, ligaments, and tendons, aiding in the diagnosis. Diagnostic tests may include:

  • Spine X-ray: This test uses radiation to produce images of bones, helping to identify any fractures or spinal alignment issues.
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): This procedure uses a magnet and radio waves to create detailed images of bones, muscles, tendons, and other soft tissues. It can provide valuable information about disc abnormalities or nerve impingements.
  • CT scan (Computed Tomography): This test uses X-rays and a computer to create 3D images of bones and soft tissues, allowing for a more detailed examination.
  • Electromyography (EMG): This test is used to evaluate the health of muscles and the nerves controlling them, checking for neuropathy, which can cause tingling or numbness in your legs.

Depending on the suspected cause of your pain, Dr. Brisson might also order blood or urine tests. Blood tests can detect genetic markers for certain conditions that cause back pain, like ankylosing spondylitis. Urine tests can check for kidney stones, which can cause pain in the sides of the lower back.

All these diagnostic tools, when used in combination, allow for an effective diagnosis of lower back pain, guiding the development of an appropriate treatment plan.

How Can a Spine Specialist Help?

A spine specialist like Dr. Brisson can provide comprehensive care for individuals dealing with lower back pain. They can help with:

  1. Accurately diagnosing the root cause of back pain, including degenerative disc disease, herniated discs, osteoarthritis, spinal stenosis, and scoliosis, among others.
  2. Interpreting imaging studies to identify the exact cause of pain, leading to a more accurate diagnosis.
  3. Offering a range of treatment options, from conservative non-invasive measures to surgical interventions.
  4. Prescribing physical therapy and pain relief techniques such as injections and medication.
  5. Recommending lifestyle modifications like weight management, posture correction, and spine-strengthening exercises.
  6. Monitoring the progression of the condition and adjusting the treatment plan as necessary.
  7. Providing guidance on preventing future episodes of lower back pain and managing chronic pain conditions.

With their expertise, spine specialists offer expert diagnosis, a wide range of treatment options to relieve pain, and an integrated approach to managing lower back pain and improving overall spinal health.

Get the Relief You Deserve with New York Spine Care

Don't let lower back pain take control of your life. At New York Spine Care, Dr. Paul-Marie Brisson is dedicated to identifying the root cause of your discomfort and providing the most effective treatment options for your specific needs.

Find the relief you deserve. Book an appointment now!